Earth Geomagnetic Environment

BGS Geomag Status
BGS Solar Storm Status
Solar storms can severely affect
Earths’ geomagnetic environment
▲ Last 24 hours’ Keogram (October-March only) and Magnetogram from SKN, Tromsø, Geophysical Observatory

▼ SWPC D-RAP map showing D-Region Absorption
The D-Region Absorption Product addresses the operational impact of the solar X-ray flux and SEP events on HF radio communication. Long-range communications using high frequency (HF) radio waves (3 – 30 MHz) depend on reflection of the signals in the ionosphere. Radio waves are typically reflected near the peak of the F2 layer (~300 km altitude), but along the path to the F2 peak and back the radio wave signal suffers attenuation due to absorption by the intervening ionosphere.

The D-Region Absorption Prediction model is used as guidance to understand the HF radio degradation and blackouts this can cause. The SWPC page includes an animated version of the map.

Magnetic condition reports from Space Weather Canada:
Polar > 75° lat | Auroral 60° to 75° lat | Sub-auroral < 60° lat

-Link to Auroral Electrojet Index Realtime “Quick look” (Kyoto, Japan)

Satellite solar wind data
ACE Satellite at L1 – gives up to 50 minutes’ warning of an event at Earth.
Bz = solar wind magnetic polarity (negative/south is good for aurora).
Sharp density and speed increases indicate possible CME incoming to Earth.

solar proton event (SPE), or “proton storm“, occurs when particles (mostly protons) emitted by the Sun become accelerated either close to the Sun during a flare or in interplanetary space by CME shocks. The events can include other nuclei such as helium ions and HZE ions. These particles cause multiple effects. They can penetrate the Earth’s magnetic field and cause ionization in the ionosphere. The effect is similar to auroral events, except that protons rather than electrons are involved. Energetic protons are a significant radiation hazard to spacecraft and astronauts.

geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth’s magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field. The increase in the solar wind pressure initially compresses the magnetosphere. The solar wind’s magnetic field interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field and transfers an increased energy into the magnetosphere. Both interactions cause an increase in plasma movement through the magnetosphere (driven by increased electric fields inside the magnetosphere) and an increase in electric current in the magnetosphere and ionosphere.

▲▼ British Geological Survey UK
BGS K and Kp Index at UK Observatories
© Helmholtz Centre Potsdam

▲ NASA/ACE Satellite at L1 (early warning)
▲ NASA/ACE Satellite at L1 (early warning)
More ACE Data here
DISCOVR Real-time Solar Wind Data is here
▲ Energetic Electron Fluence Review and Forecast
>2 MeV at geosynchronous altitude (Space Weather Canada) [Link]

Live data from BGS: Link

Bartel’s Music Kp Index (nowcast)

GFZ Potsdam (last four solar rotations)
GFZ Potsdam (current year)

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